Saturday, January 8, 2011

Portland Japanese Garden: Plants

“A garden is the medium to give people a moment to lift them up, giving themselves something they did not have before. It is … a moment to feel a revolution.”

—Hoichi Kurisu, former landscape director of the Portland Japanese Garden,
as quoted in Human Nature by Bruce Taylor Hamilton

A Japanese garden, like any garden, would be incomplete without plants. No matter how minimalistic it is, it needs living, growing things, even if they are just mosses. In a more metaphorical sense, plants function as the “garments” of the garden, changing as the seasons change, underscoring the concept of life in constant flux.

In a Japanese garden, plants are placed in very specific ways in order to create balance. This balance comes from how plants harmonize—or contrast—with each other. Evergreens are juxtaposed with deciduous plants; coarser-textured pines with soft maples; tall bamboos with low-growing mosses.

Similar plants are typically grouped in uneven numbers; plantings of three or five are considered particularly pleasing and in keeping with the Japanese sense of proportion.


Lace-leaf maple showing a highly intricate branching pattern created through controlled pruning and shaping. Japanese maples are a symbol of grace and represent balance


Friday, January 7, 2011

Portland Japanese Garden: Design

“In Japan, when a man comes home from work, no matter how small his garden, he should take off his business jacket and put on his Japanese coat, pour a cup of sake and walk in his garden and relax and contemplate. Only then should he join his family.”

—Professor Takuma Tono, designer of the Portland Japanese Garden,
as quoted in Human Nature by Bruce Taylor Hamilton

The Portland Japanese Garden is located in Washington Park on a 5.5 acre site that was the home of the Oregon Zoo before it moved to its current location in 1959. The garden was designed by Professor Takuma Tono, considered one of the leading Japanese landscape architects of his time, and opened to the public in 1967. Tono’s design, and the work of successive generations of landscape directors from Japan, was so successful that the Portland Japanese Garden has been called “one of the most authentic Japanese gardens outside of Japan” and “the most beautiful Japanese garden, not only in the United States, but in the world outside of Japan”. Thanks to the hard work and dedication not just of the garden staff but also of the many hundreds of volunteers, this was achieved in just a few years when traditional Japanese gardens take decades to mature.


Gate between the inner and outer section of the Tea Garden

Thursday, January 6, 2011

Three aeoniums

Aeoniums are subtropical succulents native to the Canary Islands off the northwest coast of Africa. There are 35 species, including the tree aeonium (Aeonium arboreum) which can grow to 6 ft.

Aeoniums are members of the Crassulaceae family which also includes many other rosette-forming succulents such as echeverias, graptopetalums and dudleyas. Sometimes it is hard to keep them all apart, but in general, the leaves of aeoniums are less fleshy that those of other crassulaceaes. In addition, most aeonium species have strong stems that keep the rosettes upright. In contrast, many other crassulaceaes are stemless or have short, weak stems so the rosettes are packed together quite tightly and/or are close to the ground.

Like most agaves and some other succulents, aeoniums are typically monocarpic. This means that the rosette will die after flowering. This is not a big deal for multi-branched aeoniums with many rosettes, but if a plant only has one rosette, the whole plant will perish. (Most aeoniums take 5 years or longer to flower so you get quite a bit of enjoyment out of your plant.)

Coming from a Mediterranean climate where most of the precipitation falls in the winter, aeoniums are winter growers and go semi-dormant in the summer. This means that they need regular water in the winter, less in the summer. In coastal climates, the humidity in the air is often all the moisture they need. In drier inland areas, weekly summer watering is advised if your goal is to grow the nicest looking plants possible. A couple of years ago, I neglected my potted Aeonium undulatum (saucer plant) for almost an entire summer; the only water it received was overspray from a nearby lawn sprinkler. While it looked a bit ratty, it hung on quite valiantly and began to perk up as soon as I began to water it more frequently. Today it looks as good as it ever has (see photos below).

As far as soil goes, aeoniums are not picky. They tolerate more water than many other succulents and accept somewhat heavier soils without rotting. Heavy clay still spells doom, however, as it does for so many plants. In pots, I would recommend a good general-purpose potting soil instead of the specialty soil sold for cacti and succulents since aeoniums don’t like it bone dry.

In many respects, aeoniums are the perfect plants for busy gardeners. They are undemanding, not prone to pests, and add a touch of the exotic. However, they are not cold hardy. They tolerate a light freeze, down to 28° or so, but go to mush in temperatures much lower than that. Provided the freeze is only short-lived, they usually come back fairly quickly. Even so, if you live in USDA hardiness zone 9a or below, I recommend you plant your aeoniums in pots and bring them inside for the winter. They prefer bright light so a place by a window would be ideal.

In our garden, we currently have three aeoniums. One is planted in the ground, the other two are in pots on our front porch.

Two potted aeoniums: Aeonium haworthii ‘Kiwi’ on the left and Aeonium undulatum on the right, with a dwarf aloe and an echeveria hybrid in between

Aeonium undulatum, also known as “saucer plant”, can grow up to 3 ft. tall. Most plants are single-stemmed, but others (like ours) branch at ground level and therefore have more than one rosette. The rosette on a mature plant can be 12"-16" across. The largest rosette on our 3-year old potted plant is currently 8" across.

Perfect rosette on our potted Aeonium undulatum
110103_Aeonium-undulatum echeveria-hybrid
Two members of the Crassulaceae family: Aeonium undulatum (right) and Echeveria hybrid (left)

Aeonium haworthii ‘Kiwi’ has a creamy center that becomes progressively greener toward the outside of the rosette. Our plant is grown in bright indirect light; in the sun, you’d see a pink margin around the leaves. The more sun, the more pronounced this margin becomes. I actually prefer it without the pink margin.

Potted Aeonium haworthii ‘Kiwi’, grown in the shade. The rosette is 5" across.

Aeonium arboreum ‘Atropurpureum’ is a purple-leaved tree aeonium. Ours grows in the succulent bed next to our driveway. This location is in partial shade, which is why the leaves are less purple than they would be in full sun. Some cultivars of Aeonium arboreum, especially ‘Zwartkop’, are such a deep purple that from a distance they appear black.

Aeonium arboreum ‘Atropurpureum’, planted in the ground. It survived last winter’s 26°F low with no damage.

These three aeoniums, and some others, are commonly available in all nurseries and box store garden centers. Rarer species and hybrids can be obtained from specialty succulent nurseries.

Tuesday, January 4, 2011

Cape honeysuckle sucks!

Cape honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis) is an evergreen climbing shrub from South Africa that is very quick to establish, turning walls and fences into luxuriant bowers of green. Its orange flowers are a hummingbird magnet and add a tropical splash of color to any landscape. It’s available at any box store in our area, often for less than $5 for a gallon-sized plant.


Cape honeysuckle at a Best Western in Palm Desert, CA, February 2011

Who can resist such a magnificent plant and such a great bargain? We certainly couldn’t. Attracted by its growth potential and its stunning flowers, we planted one against the street-side fence in our backyard. That was 12 years ago. And we’ve been trying to kill it ever since.

While it is a profuse bloomer with beautiful flowers, and it does establish itself quickly, it simply knows no bounds. It climbs high into trees and and anything else nearby, intertwining itself inextricably with whatever it finds. If that weren’t enough, it produces enormous numbers of underground runners that pop up far away from the main plant—sometimes 6, 8 or even 10 feet (!) away. Running bamboo has nothing on this plant!

A whole slew of suckers. Time to get out my hori hori!

We wisened up to its extreme vigor within a year and decided to take it out. I cut off all the above-ground growth and dug up what I thought was the entire root ball, thinking that would be the end of it. Far from it. Suckers continued to pop up here, and there, and over there. Depending on where they came up, I dug them up with a spade, pried them out with a weeding knife or simply tore them off when I was too frustrated to do anything else. I repeated these measures year in, year out—sometimes more diligently, sometimes less so. I even tried Roundup, knowing that it probably wouldn’t work considering how many suckers there are. (I was right.)

Sucker coming up under the hose cart

Fast forward to the present. It’s now been 12 years since I planted this cape honeysuckle. And it’s still here. It comes up in our woodland garden, amid the hostas and farfugiums and ferns. It pops up in the middle of the lawn, more than 20 ft. from where it was originally planted. A time or two it has even grown out of cracks in the concrete slab of our house.

I don’t have a clue how to kill it. I can’t dig up the entire area because it’s densely planted. I can’t spray Roundup on every sucker because often they come up right next to desirable plants. I suppose a heavy freeze would kill it since it’s only hardy to zone 9, but it would also kill many of our other plants.

So the only thing I can do is to continue digging and prying out the suckers whenever and wherever I spot them, knowing full well that even the smallest piece of root that remains in the soil will eventually turn into another sucker.

Hard-earned lesson: Always do research on a plant’s invasive potential before you put it in the ground.

The suckers look so cute and innocent, don’t they?

P.S. Needless to say I would love to hear from anybody who has successfully eradicated this (ob)noxious weed, which, by the way, is not related to “regular” honeysuckle (genus Lonicera).

P.P.S. Tecomaria capensis is listed in the Global Invasive Species Database of the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). I guess I’m not alone in my plight.

Monday, January 3, 2011

11 gardening projects for 2011: projects 6-11

The first five of my planned gardening projects for 2011 are described in yesterday’s post. Here are the remaining six.

6. Install a Japanese water basin in woodland garden

Water is as essential feature of a Japanese garden. Our diminutive woodland area is much too small for an in-ground water feature, but I’d love to set up a small Japanese basin. Water would flow into it from a bamboo spout and out into a reservoir buried underneath. The biggest problem is that we don’t have electricity in that part of the yard so we can’t use a regular electrical pump. The obvious solution is to use a solar pump, but since this area is in the shade most of the day, I’d have to set up the solar panel quite a distance away.

We already have a rock with a small hollow on top that would work (see photo below). The other alternative is to buy a granite basin like these, but these don’t come cheap. Unless I can find an irresistible deal on a “real” basin, I’m going to repurpose what we already have. My goal isn’t to create an authentic Japanese garden, just to incorporate elements that work for our situation.

This rock would be turned into a water basin

7. Find a better hose storage solution

I hate garden hoses. I’ve bought cheap ones and expensive ones, and before long they all get kinked and twisted. Storing garden hoses is another issue. Hose reels and carts are cheap and do work, but they are an eye sore. I’ve looked at hose pots but haven’t found one that isn’t overly cutesy or ornate. My wife suggested simply using a glazed pot, setting it on two bricks spaced a few inches apart, and routing the hose through the drain hole in the bottom (enlarged if necessary). Sounds like a good idea to me.

Ugly hose cart in woodland garden

8. Minimize the clutter in the yard

I’m sick and tired of seeing empty flower pots, buckets and bags of potting soil scattered about the back yard. I’m the main culprit here, and I’m putting myself on notice. I hereby vow to minimize clutter in the yard by keeping all the supplies in one place, tucked away in a far corner of the yard or better yet, in a storage bench or box yet to be designed and built.


9. Plant a terrarium with carnivorous plants

This was inspired by a wonderful book I got for Christmas, Bizarre Botanicals by Larry Mellichamp and Paul Gross (Timber Press, 2010). Many different carnivorous plants are commercially available, and creating a carnivorous garden inside a glass terrarium sounds like a neat idea. This terrarium would be kept outside in the warm months, probably on a low table on the front porch where we would be able to enjoy it up close.

This project requires more research, but I’m looking forward to it. I can’t wait to feed the Venus flytrap!

10. Visit the Portland Japanese Garden in the fall

This isn’t a gardening project per se, but it would provide gardening inspiration. I had the opportunity to visit the Portland Japanese Garden this past July and fell in love with its serenity and sense of spirituality. While beautiful even in the dog days of summer, the Portland Japanese Garden is supposed to be at its most striking in the fall when the many deciduous trees and shrubs are ablaze with color. Since we have friends in Portland—and flying from Sacramento is easy and quick—this trip will happen.

Portland Japanese Garden this summer

11. Read more gardening blogs

There are dozens, if not hundreds, of outstanding gardening blogs. They are fantastic sources of practical information and, just as importantly, inspiration. Unfortunately, there are only so many hours in a day, and most of us have many demands on our time. Even so, I plan on expanding the roster of blogs I follow. In particular, I’m interested in blogs that describe how to build things for the garden because that’s the one area in which I feel totally incompetent. If you have any recommendations, please let me know!

Sunday, January 2, 2011

11 gardening projects for 2011: projects 1-5

It’s dangerous putting the things you want to accomplish in writing—and even more so doing it publicly. But I’m hoping this will put the necessary pressure on me to get at least half of them completed. The fun ones will definitely get done, like adding more bamboo and getting carnivorous plants, others look iffier, like anything involving power tools or heavy manual labor.

So here are my top gardening projects for the new year: 11 of them since it’s 2011. The first five are described below, the rest will follow tomorrow.

1. Get more bamboo

This one’s easy. I’m only including it on my list because it’s the funnest project of them all. I already have a variegated arrow bamboo lined up (Pseudosasa japonica 'Akebono-suji', see here for a photo) and am hoping I can get a hold of an Angel Mist bamboo (Dendrocalamus minor ‘Amoenus’, see here for a large photo).

2. Replace street-side hedge with bamboo

Although pretty involved, this project will probably happen. The fact that it involves bamboo is a bonus.

As you can see in the photo below, we have a dozen mock orange shrubs (Pittosporum tobira) planted along the street side of the backyard. Left unchecked, these plants form a dense hedge with branches that extend outward into the sidewalk, which has caused problems with the City in the past. Last year my wife spent a goodly amount of time cutting out the dead growth in the middle, which is why the hedge currently doesn’t look very hedgy. Keeping this hedge maintained is an ongoing effort that is both time-consuming and frustrating.

Pittosporum hedge outside our backyard fence

We’re toying with the idea of removing the pittosporums and replacing them with clumping bamboo. We would use emerald bamboo (Bambusa textilis ‘Mutabilis’) because its culms grow very straight with just a little arching on top. In our climate, we can expect a mature height of at least 30 feet, which would completely screen our house and provide the necessary shade for our woodland garden which is right on the other side of the fence. Since we need instant shade, we would plant 4-5 15-gallon plants.

3. Lay flagstone next to front porch

Look at the photo of the street side hedge above. See the area where the 6 ft. backyard fence meets the 4 ft. front yard fence? Inside the fence, tucked away next to the front porch, is a small area where we built an L-shaped raised bed for tropical plants (elephant ears and gingers, mostly). Unfortunately, the ground outside this bed is just soil, currently covered with leaves from our Bradford pear tree. I don’t like how unfinished it looks, especially since the front porch is a beautiful rose-colored flagstone, and I intend to do something about it in 2011. I’m thinking of getting flagstone remnants, either in the same color as the front porch, or a neutral gray or blue. I will simply dry-lay them on sand.

Bare soil to be covered with flagstone

4. Build a succulent display stand

The area in the photo below is right next to the area shown in the photo above. I plan on laying flagstone here as well and then build some sort of multi-tiered display stand for the many potted succulents that are currently cluttering up the front porch (hidden below the white frost blanket). I love these succulents, but they aren’t displayed to maximum effect at the moment.

This is where the succulent displays stand would go

5. Build a potting bench

This is a project my wife suggested a few years ago. Since I do a lot of potting and repotting, it would be nice to have a dedicated place for that task instead of doing it here and there. The plan is to build something like this against the side of the house where the colored plastic tubs are.

Cluttered no man’s land in the backyard

We would like to incorporate an old soapstone lab sink that my wife got from Freecycle a while ago. The potting would be done inside the sink, and spilled potting soil could be collected through the opening underneath the sink.

Old soapstone sink for potting bench

This project requires careful planning, not to mention the dreaded use of power tools, so I’d say there’s only a 50:50 chance that it will happen. I am tired of how ugly the assorted bins and tubs look, so even if we don’t build a potting bench, we have to find some way of making them less visible.

Saturday, January 1, 2011

Happy New Year—and looking back at 2010

2010 was a big year in the life of our garden. For the first time since our 2006 remodel, our yard—especially our front yard—looked fantastic. The perennials we had planted outside the 4 ft. fence are now mature, and they gave us the patchwork of colors and textures we had hoped for.

Planting strip outside the front yard fence in July
I love the different colors and textures of rudbeckia (right), Russian sage, lavender and ‘Hot Lips’ sage (top left)
The planting bed inside the front yard fence, which is only two years old, looked pretty darn good, too
The succulent bed next to our front door has been a favorite of mine since we created it a couple of years ago
Close-up of one my favorite small agaves, 'Blue Glow', a hybrid between Agave attenuata  and Agave ocahui. This spectacular plant is now more widely available (distributed by Proven Winners).

2010 was also the year of the bamboo as I added a couple of dozen bamboos to our yard. A few bamboos (all clumpers) went into the ground, the others are in pots—and four were planted in the galvanized-steel stock tanks we installed in the back yard.

Looking from the front door towards the street. Partially hidden behind the tropical foliage of bananas and cannas are three clumping bamboos: Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa chungii ‘Barbellata’ and Bambusa multiplex ‘Alphonse Karr’.
Bambusa multiplex ‘Alphonse Karr’ in the back yard. Planted in the fall of 2009, it sent up 15 new culms in 2010.

2010 was the year I fell in love with Japanese gardens. I visited the Portland Japanese Garden, considered to be one of the most important Japanese gardens outside of Japan (article coming up later in January), and read stacks of books. I then began to incorporate some elements into our yard, although my goal was never to create an authentic Japanese garden, just to borrow the design features that excite me the most (such as stone lanterns) and are doable on a small budget.

3 ft. tall Koyabu lantern in the woodland garden outside our dining room. This area contains shade-loving Asian plants such as hostas, farfugiums, hakone grass, and three clumping bamboos (Borinda fungosa, Borinda angustissima, and Drepanostachyum sengteeanum).
2 ft. Craftsman lantern next to a Fargesia robusta
Farfugium japonicum giganteum in our woodland garden. Farfugiums, native to Japan and eastern Asia, were among my favorite foliage plants in 2010.

My love affair with tropical plants continued even though they did play second fiddle to bamboo.

Colorful caladium leaf. I had overwintered a bunch of caladium bulbs and planted them into two medium-sized pots. They did put on a quite a show.
Our giant elephant ear (Alocasia macrorrhizos ‘Borneo Giant’) grew bigger leaves than ever this year. The leaves continued to look beautiful right through fall and into winter. Not even the two-day freeze we had over Thanksgiving fazed them. In fact, they’re still going strong today, 1/1/11.

2010 wasn’t a great tomato year for us but we did have awesome peppers. In fact, I’m planning a chile extravaganza for 2011 with seeds I got from Peppermania. I love cooking Mexican food, especially mole sauces, and many of the chiles needed just aren’t commonly available in grocery stores, even here in California.

Jalapeños from our yard, as perfect as they get

Winter is citrus time. We have a Washington navel orange and a Bearss lime, both of which are producing heavily, as well as three young trees that aren’t bearing much fruit yet (Meyer lemon, pink Eureka lemon, and Key lime).

Ripe limes that have fallen off the tree. In the grocery store they’re sold green, but if left on the tree, they turn yellow.
Washington navel oranges

As much as we enjoy growing plants outside, we’re not into house plants. For the last 5 years the only house plant we had was a Ficus benjamina,and the only reason it’s still alive is because it seems to thrive on neglect.

In October we were given four air plants, and I must admit I’ve enjoyed having them around. My wife added them to a rock arrangement she’d created on a bamboo platter, and they just sit there and look beautiful. Once a week—or whenever we think of it—we put them in a bowl of water overnight, and that’s it. One project for 2011 is to find other bromeliads for the house as long as their needs are similarly simple.

Air plant (Tillandsia sp.)

2010 brought a regular visitor to our front yard, Bamboo Kitty. I have no idea who she belongs to, but she loves to sit on our front yard fence between the Mexican weeping and Asian Lemon bamboo. I wish she’d hang out time in our back yard, too, and take care of the rats and mice that are eating our winter vegetables and farfugiums, but since we have a dog, that’s not likely to happen.

Bamboo Kitty

Since I started this blog in October of 2010, I’ve been taking even more photos than before. I firmly believe that a picture says more than a thousand words—or, conversely, a thousand words say more if accompanied by a few good pictures.

This is my favorite photo taken in our yard in 2010.

Abutilon pictum 'Souvenir de Bonn'

And finally the best sunrise of the year, November 11. In the 13 years we’ve lived in this house, I’ve never seen such a beautiful morning sky.


Happy New Year, everybody! I hope 2011 will the best year ever in your garden and in your life.

Friday, December 31, 2010

Sundial Bridge in Redding, CA

Since this a gardening blog, I normally don’t talk about man-made structures other than what is typically found on a residential property. However, this one is so special that I decided to dedicate a blog post to it.

The Sundial Bridge in Redding, CA, two and a half hours north of Sacramento, is a futuristic-looking pedestrian bridge across the Sacramento River. It connects the north and south campus of Turtle Bay Exploration Park and provides access to the 16-mile Sacramento River Trail.


The Sundial Bridge was designed by Santiago Calatrava, one of the leading architects and bridge designers in the world. Its cantilever spar cable-stayed design was pioneered by Calatrava and first seen in his Alamillo Bridge in Seville, Spain (completed in 1992). Calatrava has created several other bridges with the same visual signature, most recently in Jerusalem, Israel and Dublin, Ireland. Calatrava is also the designer of the World Trade Center Transportation Hub currently under construction in New York City.


The deck of the Sundial Bridge is surfaced with translucent green glass tiles that are lighted from below at night, turning the bridge into giant aquamarine sculpture.


The 217-ft. support tower forms the gnomon of a sundial—the part that casts the shadow. The sundial is accurate only on June 21, summer solstice. The tip of the shadow moves about one foot per minute, fast enough for the movement to be seen with the naked eye.


The Sundial Bridge is now an iconic landmark for the city of Redding but initially is was very controversial. The Calatrava design was championed by a small group of civic leaders, but the populace at large was against the sleek modern design and wanted a more “folksy” covered bridge. However, since a large part of the funding came from the private McConnell Foundation, the Calatrava proposal was given the green light. Construction took longer and cost more than anticipated due to difficult engineering challenges but the bridge was finally completed in 2004—three years behind schedule, and at a final cost of $23 million.

Map picture
Regardless of the criticism still expressed by its opponents, the Sundial Bridge has achieved something Redding sorely needed: It has turned this blue-collar city of 80,000 into a tourist destination. People who would pass through on Interstate 5 without stopping now do stop. Others come specifically to see the bridge and in the process discover that Redding is much more than what they expected.

Thursday, December 30, 2010

Bamboos at San Francisco Botanical Garden, part 2

Yesterday, I talked about some of the clumping bamboos I saw at San Francisco Botanical Garden. Today’s post is about the running bamboos I encountered.

Pleioblastus (running)

Pleioblastus is a genus of small to medium-sized running bamboos, many of them very useful as groundcovers or hedges. The dwarf varieties can be cut to the ground in early spring to stimulate new growth for a clean look. All species prefer at least partial shade and are hardy to 5°F or below.

If you have a small yard like we do, I would not plant pleioblastus in the ground—if you must, patrol the area vigilantly through the growing season to make sure your plant doesn’t stray. I have several pleioblastus species and they’re all contained: the dwarf species like Pleioblastus distichus and Pleioblastus fortunei to a pot or shallow bowl, and the taller Pleioblastus gramineus to one of our stock tanks.

Dwarf white-stripe bamboo (Pleioblastus fortunei) pruned into a low hedge along the bamboo pond. This is a beautiful small bamboo that can be shaped as needed. It is also very attractive in a large shallow bowl.

Phyllostachys (running)

Phyllostachys is a large genus of medium to giant running bamboos native to the temperate and semitropical areas of eastern Asia where they grow from sea level to 12,000 ft. When people hear the word “bamboo”, this is typically what they think of.

The genus Phyllostachys comprises many of the most beautiful bamboos as well as many of the most useful. For example, Phyllostachys edulis (moso), grows in giant forests in China. If you’ve seen the movie Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon, you know how stunningly beautiful a moso forest is. However, moso is also the economically most important bamboo in China. Virtually all bamboo flooring, panels and boards sold in the U.S. is made from Chinese moso.

Most phyllostachys species prefer full sun but tolerate some shade. They are the hardiest large bamboos (20 ft. and above) in cultivation, with some species surviving temperatures as low as -15°F.

If you have a large property and want a bamboo grove you can walk through, put phyllostachys in the ground, water it well and stand back. However, most people planting phyllostachys will want some form of containment, be it a rhizome barrier or a raised planting bed. This article from Needmore Bamboo in Indiana provides a good overview of the various containment strategies available for running bamboos.

Many phyllostachys species like the much-loved black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) also do well in large pots, half barrels or similar containers. Here is a good article on growing bamboos in containers.

Phyllostachys nigra ‘Bory’. This variety of black bamboo is known as “tiger bamboo” or “snakeskin bamboo”. Its culms age to a mottled brown, often with quite a bit of green still visible.
Phyllostachys nigra ‘Bory’ forms a grove in the Temperate Asia Garden, right next to the Bamboo Pond.
A path allows visitors to walk right through the ‘Bory’ grove.
Phyllostachys nigra ‘Bory’ set off by a large boulder. I think that rocks and bamboo look great together.
Bamboo pond in the Temperate Asia Garden. From the identification signs I gathered that this is a mixed grove of Phyllostachys vivax, Phyllostachys flexuosa and Phyllostachys viridis.

Sasa (running)

Sasa is a genus of small running bamboos, mostly from Japan. All sasas have large, wide leaves; some, like Sasa palmata and Sasa megalophylla, have particularly big leaves that rival the Indocalamus genus.

Sasas make good groundcovers and small shrubs since they rarely grow taller than 6 ft.—many are shorter—and they are also well suited for container culture. In fact, since sasas are running bamboos renowned for their vigor, I highly recommend confining them to a pot or tub if you have a small yard. The smaller species can be cut clear to the ground in the spring to reduce their vigor and to enjoy all-new leaves.

Sasas like shade and moisture and are exceptionally hardy, some species down to -10°F.

Sasa veitchii, or kumazasa, is a particularly striking ornamental. In the fall, the leaf margins start to wither, which gives the plant a variegated look. However, since these leaves will continue to die from the outside in and eventually look less than ornamental, many people cut the plant to the ground in the spring. The plant will then grow a fresh crop of all-green leaves which, come fall, with start to wither again.

To me, Sasa veitchii looks best in a naturalistic environment, like here under a tree. I have a young plant in a pot and, isolated like that, the variegated effect of the withering leaf margins is nowhere near as spectacular.

What remains…

What remains after bamboo dies. I have no idea what species this was, but what a cool idea to leave it like this.