Friday, November 12, 2010

New bamboo in my collection: Indocalamus tessellatus

Yesterday Sean Bigley aka Mad Man Bamboo and his family stopped by for a visit. While our wives and daughters did their thing, Sean and I checked out the progress on my bamboos, most of which came from his backyard nursery, and talked shop. On a “bamboo nut” scale from 1-10, Sean is close to a 10, but my wife would argue that I’m not far behind.

I’ve been to Sean’s house many times since my obsession with bamboo began about a year and a half ago so I have a good idea of what a given species will look like after being in the ground for a while. As a testament to the explosive growth of bamboo, many of my plants are beginning to resemble the mature specimens Sean has at his house, which is very gratifying to see. Soon I’ll be able to take divisions which I can then use to trade for—even more bamboo. When will it end? Probably when I’ve been swallowed up by my bamboo jungle, or killed by a bamboo shoot.

Sean was kind enough to bring over a new addition to my collection: Indocalamus tessellatus, a very hardy running bamboo that purportedly has the largest leaves of any bamboo in cultivation in the U.S. The leaves can be up to 24 in. long and 4 in. wide. The thin culms bend under the weight of the foliage, forming a tropical-looking mound. In China and Japan, the leaves are used to make mats and for wrapping food.

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Indocalamus tessellatus in 5-gallon container

Since it’s a running bamboo, I will plant mine in a horse trough that will go under the bay trees where nothing much grows. This bamboo does very well in the shade, including low light situations, and will add an exotic look.

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One particular energetic rhizome escaping through the drain hole in the container to form a new culm
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Closeup of drain hole

Have I said that I love the leaves?

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Very large leaves, even on this juvenile plant
101112_indocalamus_tessellatus_leaves
 

Here are some good photos of mature specimens: NeedmoreBamboo.com and Bambou-Bamboo.com.

Thursday, November 11, 2010

What’s so special about bamboo anyway?

Cousin S. recently asked what was so special about bamboo. I could simply say that I like the way it looks, but there’s so much more than that. A quick Google search will lead you to a treasure trove of information—more than you ever wanted to know, I guarantee you! I don’t want to duplicate what other people have already said more eloquently and convincingly than I could, but here are some of the major aspects that I find particularly intriguing, ranging from the objective to the purely subjective.

Environmental benefits

Bamboo releases 35% more oxygen into the air than a tree of similar size.

Bamboo is very efficient at removing CO2 from the air (a process called “carbon sequestration”); some species remove as much as 50,000 pounds per acre per year. Some scientists say that bamboo as a carbon sink can aid in reducing global warming.

Because of its dense network of rhizomes and roots, bamboo is ideally suited for erosion control, preventing runoff damage to fragile areas and retaining up to 100% more water in the watershed.

Superior building material

Bamboo has a tensile strength higher than many steel alloys, which makes it a superior material for home construction in many parts of the world, especially tropical regions where the culms (canes) of indigenous bamboos grow to a sizable diameter.

In Central and Latin America, Guadua angustifolia, which can grow to 70 ft. in height with 6” diameter culms, and other guadua species, are widely used as a building material. Guadua’s rot-resistance is superior even to hardwood, which makes it ideal for use in humid environments. Colombian architect Simón Vélez has gained an international reputation for building structures with guadua. This site contains many photos of bamboo buildings designed by Vélez.

In China, Phyllostachys edulis, the famed Moso bamboo, covers millions of acres and is used to make everything from tubing for aqueducts to bamboo flooring. Most, if not all, bamboo flooring sold in the U.S. is from Moso bamboo. If you’ve seen Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, you will remember the dance-like duel between two of the major characters in the tops of giant bamboo “trees”; that scene was filmed in the Moso forests of Anji, China.

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Moso bamboo flooring in our house

Versatile landscaping plant

Bamboo is the fastest growing plant on earth. Some large species have been measured growing as much as 40 inches in a 24-hour period. This is a lovely piece of trivia but not really meaningful in concrete terms for most people. However, it is that potential for rapid growth that makes bamboo such a useful landscaping plant.

Case in point: Last winter the City of Davis removed a 40 ft. ornamental pear tree in our front yard because of mistletoe infestation that caused branches to fall off.

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Bradford pear tree in front of our house before it was removed in January of 2010

All of a sudden we were faced with the loss of a major source of shade for our house. Planting another tree, even a fast-growing one, would have meant waiting 10+ for a significant amount of shade. Instead we decided to plant a giant clumping timber bamboo (Bambusa oldhamii) that has the potential to grow to 50 ft. in 5-7 years. In spite of its towering height, the base of the plant stays tight and compact—ideal for where we planted it.

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Giant clumping timber bamboo (Bambusa oldhamii) after just 8 months in the ground

At the other end of the spectrum, there are many low-growing bamboos that make good groundcovers, especially in a larger yard where they can be given free reign. (In smaller yards care must be taken to confine energetic running species, otherwise they might stray from their intended planting area.)

Cultural benefits

In the West, bamboo is a novelty phenomenon. In Asia, it has been an integral part of everyday life for thousands of years. It is a major food source, is used to make medicine as well as paper, implements and tools of every description, and serves as inspiration for music, painting and poetry. Few other plants, if any, have been so intricately linked to the development of mankind throughout the ages. I find that to be both inspirational and humbling.

Beauty

And finally, the most important—and most personal—aspect of all: I truly love the look of bamboo.

I love the way the leaves move in the breeze, and I love the many different colors the culms come in—green, gray, brown, red, yellow, black and shades in between. I love the sound of rustling leaves and clacking culms—if you’ve ever heard bamboo wind chimes, you know what I mean. I love how some culms are straight, presenting a very formal and almost regal look, while others arch gracefully under the weight of their green load, forming a protective canopy for the plants growing beneath. I love the atmosphere of faraway lands that bamboo imparts to our Western yard, allowing me to dream of exotic places I will never see. I love the physical plant that I can touch, and I love the emotions it invokes in me.

Bamboo makes me happy—what more could I ask?

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Chocolate bamboo (Borinda fungosa)
in our backyard

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Bamboo videos

I’ve been wanting to post this for a while now. Today seems like a good day since I’ve been busy with work and haven’t had time for a longer entry.

These are bamboo-related videos that I find particularly interesting or useful.


 

GENERAL VIDEOS ABOUT BAMBOO

Portrait of a woman growing bamboo in Bali (from CNN)

 

Visit to Bamboo Garden near Portland, OR

 

Garden Time TV: Visit to Bamboo Garden near Portland, OR

 

Garden Time TV: Visit to Tsugawa Nursery in Oregon; planting running bamboos

 

Efforts by Bamboo Revolution (www.bamboorevolution.com) to launch a sustainable bamboo industry in the U.S.

 

Video about Booshoot Gardens, a tissue-culture lab dedicated to the rapid propagation of bamboo

 


BUILDING WITH BAMBOO

Several interested videos on this topic can be found here.

 


PLANTING AND MAINTAINING BAMBOO

Planting bamboo in a pot (audience: beginners). More bamboo-related videos for beginners by Expert Village can be found on YouTube. Experienced bamboo aficionados will groan at some of the information provided in these videos.

 

Good introduction to planting a bamboo in the ground

 

How to divide a clumping bamboo

 

How to prune a clumping bamboo

 

Winterizing bamboos

Monday, November 8, 2010

Autumn blues

This spring and summer our yard looked better than ever, maybe because many plants are now mature or maybe because we had a long spring and relatively mild summer. In fact, quite a few plants were still doing OK on as recently as last week. However, with the recent rains combined with intermittently strong winds and much lower nighttime temperatures, things are going downhill fast. Of course this doesn’t exactly come as a surprise considering the time of year but somehow I’m not mentally prepared to let go of the abundant beauty we enjoyed in 2010 and so I find myself in a bit of a funk today.

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Salvias, echinaceas and coreopsis today
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Same bed in July

My tower of jewels (Echium wildpretii) is definitely a goner. I still have no idea why it decided to just die!

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Tower of jewels not long for this world

The wind knocked over some of my favorite cannas that I’d been trying to establish in a pretty inhospitable part of our yard. They don’t really get enough sun or water there so next year I’ll try something else in that spot.

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Cannas after the wind had its way with them

I love caladiums, probably because they’re so short-lived in our climate and hence so special when they’re at their peak. Well, they are not at their peak any longer! Time to dig up the tubers and store them for next year.

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Caladiums not enjoying the colder nighttime temperatures

Lavender is usually a very happy plant in our area. This one has been in the ground for four years and looked glorious all year (see 2nd photo below). Now, for some reason the middle part is dying. I’ll give it a radical pruning in a week or two to see if it will recover. Sometimes lavender just decides to die. I suspect it has to do with our clay soil even though I heavily amend it to improve drainage.

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Lavender dying from the inside out
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Happy in the summer (plant on the left)

This is the time of year that Mexican bush sage (Salvia leucantha) really hits its stride. However, it is no match for strong winds. Even knocked over it’s still a bee magnet so I haven’t cut it back yet but I’ll have to do that soon because it’s blocking the sidewalk.

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Mexican bush sage, flattened by the wind

Just recently I wrote a rather gushing piece about my farfugiums. I mentioned that last winter some critter—a rat was my guess—was eating my variegated farfugium. Well, the critter is back. It did horrible damage to my Farfugium japonicum 'Argenteum' and even attacked the leaves of my Farfugium japonicum ‘Giganteum’.

Don’t think you can get away with it, maleficent creature of the night! I’m not going to take this lying down!

Update: Culprit caught on 11/14/10.

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Chewed leaf on Farfugium japonicum ‘Giganteum’

The time has definitely come to say goodbye to the denizens of the tropical bed in the front yard. The hidden gingers (curcumas), are usually the first to go. (Funny, they’re also some of the last to come up in early summer!) The butterfly gingers (hedychiums) and the elephant ears (colocasias) usually hang on until the first frost.

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Hidden ginger (Curcuma petiolata) getting ready to hibernate

Memories of a time gone by: our tropical bed in its mid-summer glory.

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Tropical bed with caladiums, elephant ears,
and various types of ginger

OK, enough of the autumn blues for today. There are good things happening, too, in our yard. I just noticed dozens of seedlings from a nigella (commonly known as Love-in-the-Mist) which itself arrived on the wind from somewhere else.

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Love-in-the-Mist seedlings

And our Washington navel oranges are beginning to turn from green to orange. Still a month or six weeks to go before they’re ripe but they're looking so good already!

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Washington navel oranges

Sunday, November 7, 2010

Bamboos in Sydney, Australia

Australia has been on my mind all week. My wife is currently in Sydney visiting friends, and I’ve been thinking fondly of the time all of us spent there in late December 2009 and early January 2010.

I originally wrote the following for a travel blog I kept during our trip. I’m reposting it here because it might be of interest to other bamboo aficionados.

This page contains photos of the bamboo varieties I saw in Sydney, especially in the Royal Botanic Gardens which has mature clumps of many tropical bamboos. The descriptions in italics are from the American Bamboo Society’s Species Source List.


BAMBUSA MULTIPLEX (Hedge bamboo)

Height: 25 ft
Culm diameter: 1.5”

“Each node bears a large number of branches down to the culm base, making a dense hedge. Hardiest of the Bambusa, grown down to 12F by some in otherwise very favourable sites.”

Bambusa multiplex with bamboo fence


BAMBUSA MEMBRANACEA

Height: 70 ft
Culm diameter: 4”

“A strong growing bamboo with very straight culms forming loose clumps. Also known as Dendrocalamus membranaceus.”

Bambusa membranacea Bambusa membranacea Bambusa membranacea 


BAMBUSA OLDHAMII (Giant timber bamboo)

Height: 55 ft
Culm diameter: 4”

“The most common giant tropical bamboo grown in the U.S. Culms straight and erect with relatively short branches. Leaves are rather wide.”

 Bambusa oldhamii Bambusa oldhamii Bambusa oldhamii  Bambusa oldhamii 


BAMBUS TEXTILIS ‘GRACILIS’ (Weaver’s bamboo)

Height: 30 ft
Culm diameter: 1.3”

“Tight clumps. An extremely handsome plant that arches gracefully. The thin-walled culms are used for weaving. Culm more slender than the typical B. textilis, nodding top, graceful foliage.”

Bambusa textilis 'Gracilis' Bambusa textilis 'Gracilis' Bambusa textilis 'Gracilis' Bambusa textilis 'Gracilis' 


BAMBUSA VENTRICOSA (Buddha’s belly bamboo)

Height: 55 ft
Culm diameter: 2.3”

“It becomes a dwarf with swollen internodes when grown in pots under dry conditions. In the ground it reverts to a giant with zigzag culms and branches.

(NOTE: The specimen below showed no dwarfism whatsoever!)

Bambusa ventricosa


BAMBUSA VULGARIS ‘VITTATA’ (Painted bamboo)

Height: 50 ft
Culm diameter: 4”

“Common throughout the tropical world. Open clump, culms spaced a foot or two apart. Culm cuttings root very easily. Used for banana props. Similar to the species, golden yellow culms with green vertical stripes that look like drip marks. A very popular ornamental. Potted culm cuttings do not always survive.”

Bambusa vulgaris 'Vittata' Bambusa vulgaris 'Vittata' Bambusa vulgaris 'Vittata' Bambusa vulgaris 'Vittata' Bambusa vulgaris 'Vittata' 


DENDROCALAMUS LATIFLORUS ‘MEI-NUNG’

Height: 65 ft
Culm diameter: 8”

“From southern China. The large, dark green leaves are 10 to 16 inches long and 3 to 4 inches wide. Light green culms striped with dark green.”

Dendrocalamus latiflorus 'Mei-nung' Dendrocalamus latiflorus 'Mei-nung' Dendrocalamus latiflorus 'Mei-nung' Dendrocalamus latiflorus 'Mei-nung'


GIGANTOCHLOA ALBOCILIATA

Height: 30 ft
Culm diameter: 2”

“Tight clump. It has long (up to an inch) culm leaf ligules, narrow leaves. Light gray-green culms, white stripes.”

Gigantochloa albociliata


GIGANTOCHLOA ATROVIOLACEA (Tropical black bamboo)

Height: 50 ft
Culm diameter: 3.5”

“From Java and Sumatra. Brown to black culms striped faint green. Dark green leaves. Sheath blades reflexed.”

Gigantochloa atroviolacea Gigantochloa atroviolacea Gigantochloa atroviolacea Gigantochloa atroviolacea


PHYLLOSTACHYS NIGRA (Black bamboo)

Height: 30 ft
Culm diameter: 2”

“Culms turn jet black after the first 6 months to one year. Popular because of its graceful habit and the sharp accent of its culm color. Said to grow larger in northern climates.”

Phyllostachys nigra


PLEIOBLASTUS FORTUNEI

Height: 4 ft
Culm diameter: 0.2”

“Dwarf variegated bamboo. Leaves keep their white stripes through the year, softly hairy on the lower surface. Aka P. variegatus.”

Pleioblastus-variegata-at-Royal-Botanic-Gardens-Syndey-091227_sm


THYRSOSTACHYS SIAMENSIS (Monastery bamboo)

Height: 40 ft
Culm diameter: 3”

“One of the most graceful bamboos known. Culm walls very thick, almost solid. Sheath persistent. In monasteries in Thailand.” 

Thyrsostachys siamensis Thyrsostachys siamensis  Thyrsostachys siamensis